7) Lobotomies to Cure Abnormal Behavior
It turns out that the beautiful Old Hollywood actress Frances Farmer never actually had a lobotomy, but plenty of people in the first half of the 20th century did. The procedure, performed by sticking a long instrument into the frontal lobe of the brain via the eye socket, was considered groundbreaking and was prescribed for all manner of mental illnesses from schizophrenia to depression to OCD.
From the 1930s into the 1960s, lobotomies (or leucotomies as they were also called) were performed regularly in mental hospitals, leaving some patients far less functional than when they came in. The inventor of the procedure, Egas Moniz, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in medicine in 1949, but the procedure fell out of favor after more effective and less risky pscychiatric drugs were released in the 1950s.